Anal gland problems in dogs are fairly common, appearing in about 2 – 12% of cases with dogs (1, 2, 3). They're generally divided into two condition categories: those without abnormal growths and those with abnormal growths that are cancer-related, which are very rare (4, 5, 6).
Table of Contents
- Dog Anal Glands: Prevention and Treatment
- Dogs Anal Glands Disease
- Symptoms of Dog Anal Glands Issues
- How to Diagnose Dog Anal Glands Problems
- Home Treatment of a Dog's Anal Glands Problems
- Veterinary Treatments for Dog Anal Glands
- Common Questions about Dog's Anal Glands
- How Do You Know If Your Dog Needs His Glands Squeezed?
- How Often Do Dogs Need Anal Glands Expressed?
- Do All Dogs Need Anal Glands Expressed?
- What Happens When a Dog's Glands Are Full?
- What Causes Dog Glands to Fill?
- Can You Express Your Dog's Glands at Home?
- What Happens If You Don't Express your Dog's Glands?
- Why Do Dogs Have Anal Sacs?
- How Do You Treat an Impacted Anal Gland?
- What Causes Anal Gland Issues in Dogs?
Anal gland disease occurs due to impaction, also known as a blockage of the two ducts that remove the dog anal glands' excretions via openings on either side of the anus.
This article explains what they are, how to prevent, and how to treat anal gland problems in dogs, including special diets.
What are Dog Anal Glands?
They are similar to the scent glands found in skunks (11).
The consistency of anal sac fluid can be watery, creamy, thick, or even pasty, and there may or may not be solid materials in it (12).
This fluid then flows through two small tubes in a dog's body that open on either side of the anus.
The obstruction, often referred to as anal gland problems in dogs, means that the liquid inside the sacs builds up, resulting in an infection and rupturing the sacs (13).
If there's a dog anal gland problem, you may see the following symptoms:
- Your dog scooting rear end along the floor
- A dog's persistent licking of the afflicted area
- Your dog has a bad breath
- Blood around a dog's anus and/or in stool
Most dogs will worsen the condition by continuously licking the area to ease up the pain and discomfort.
The anal sacs blockage can cause your dog severe discomfort and pain. Therefore, you should seek veterinary treatment immediately.
Without treatment, infection and abscesses are likely to occur (14).
Small breed dogs are more prone to anal gland disease – most notably the Beagle, Chihuahua, Miniature Poodle, Cocker Spaniel, and Lhasa Apsos.
With correct nutrition, weight management, and personal hygiene routines, it’s possible to prevent and reverse any negative symptoms caused by dog anal glands problems.
If you’re worried that your pet may be suffering from this condition, it’s best to take them to the vet for an examination.
With little medical treatment available, you can undertake most of the care required to rid your dog of anal sacs blockage at home.
To prevent issues in the future, there are also things you can do to treat dog anal glands by yourself.
Dog Anal Glands: Prevention and Treatment
Why Do Dogs Have Anal Glands?
Little is known why these sacs are present, but scientists have hypothesized that it could be for one of the reasons below.
1. Marking Territory
The strong, rancid smell that is attributed to anal sac secretions could, in theory, be used as a way for dogs to mark their territory.
Seen on both male and female canines, this could be a way to ward off unwanted visitors by saying, “Hey, I live here.”
2. Health Check
The scent of the secretion does vary depending on the health of the canine in question. Dogs may use it to communicate health or sickness to other dogs.
Through extensive research, it’s possible to see that canines have been masters of adapting their diet based on what was available throughout history.
A dog's anal gland releases oily gunk directly on either side of the anus opening, leading some scientists to believe that this could be a natural lubricant to ease the passing of harder feces.
4. Piece of History
Potentially the least useful idea as to why dog anal glands exist is the historical thought.
Dogs may have these glands simply as a leftover from their ancestor's anatomy when it may have been necessary to spray these fluids at predators.
Dogs Anal Glands Disease
Anal Gland Disease (also referred to as anal sac disease, anal gland impaction, anal vasculitis, anal sac abscess, impacted anal sacs, infection of the anal sac, and abscessed anal sac) is a condition can affect dogs of all ages, breeds, and genders.
However, statistically, studies show that it is much more likely to occur in small breed dogs (15).
Impaction is essentially a blockage within the tubes leading from the dog's anal sac. When impaction occurs, the buildup of fluids causes the dog’s rear end to emit a pretty bad smell.
Some of the most common reasons that dogs anal glands can occur are:
Scar tissue can form if your dog has suffered from a past anal sac infection, which then makes it more likely for impaction and additional infections to occur.
Injuries can deform the opening of a dog's anal gland duct and make it difficult for the secretions to escape.
Ingested or environmental allergens cause inflammation to many different areas of a dog's body and can, in some cases, cause inflammation surrounding the duct opening.
Again, this makes it difficult for anything to get through, and without treatment, this can cause infection.
If your dog suffers from diarrhea, loose stools, or irregular bowel movements, this will place little to no pressure on the colon, which is required to expel the anal glands.
Short-term changes won’t cause any problems, but when it's happening for a longer duration, this can cause impaction.
Symptoms of Dog Anal Glands Issues
1. Scooting Butt
When you see your dog dragging their butt across the floor, don’t immediately jump to diagnosing them with worms.
An internal parasite infestation is one of the leading causes of “scooting,” but the second most common is irritation, infection, or impaction of a dog's anal glands.
It can be difficult to diagnose which of these conditions your pet is suffering from, but your vet can quickly run some tests to determine the issue and what treatment is necessary.
2. Distinct Odor
Healthy excretions of the anal sacs in dogs, while not smelling like roses, generally are not overpowering.
However, when there is a build-up of the oils and sweat contained within the gland, you will likely notice a constant strong smell coming from your dog’s rear end.
3. Bad Breath
Your dog has two main ways to relieve the discomfort posed by anal gland disease. The first one is scooting.
The second is licking at the afflicted area. When licking, the dog picks up these rancid secretions in the area, which in turn causes your dog's breath to smell bad.
When a blockage persists for an extended period, a dog's anal sac itself can swell from the pressure and burst.
This would result in one of two outcomes: (a) either the area surrounding the rectum will appear swollen, or (b) pus-like liquid will be oozing from the area.
How to Diagnose Dog Anal Glands Problems
Diagnosing anal gland problems in dogs is usually a quick and straightforward affair, with owners ordinarily listing the common symptoms of a dog licking at their rear or scooting their butt across the floor.
A vet will perform blood work and urinalysis.
Issues with dog anal glands are common, and this is a routine procedure. It will not directly show whether there is an impaction of the anal sac duct.
Still, it will show whether an infection relating to this or any other underlying condition causing these symptoms.
To diagnose problems with dog anal glands, your veterinarian will take a sample of the anal sac contents.
During this procedure, the vet will see whether blockages are evident and examine the potency of the liquids to see whether they have been there for some time.
Home Treatment of a Dog's Anal Glands Problems
There are many ways that you can help prevent dog anal glands from becoming swollen and diseased.
Most can be performed at home, but if you're nervous or do not want to care for your dog's anal glands by yourself, your veterinarian can assist you.
1. Adjust Your Dog's Diet
The best preventative measure for this condition is feeding a high-quality diet high in fiber and low fat.
Some dog foods for anal glands are already formulated specifically to contain more fiber. A few recommended brands you can try include:
|Blue Buffalo Wilderness High Protein, Natural...||2,050 Reviews||Check Price|
|Instinct Raw Boost Healthy Weight Grain Free...||434 Reviews||Check Price|
|Hill's Science Diet Dry Dog Food, Adult, Sensitive...||5,319 Reviews||Check Price|
2. If Needed, Ensure Weight Loss
Extra weight in dogs will cause their anal glands to be surrounded with more fatty tissue, which means it's harder to empty the dog's anal sacs.
Dogs that are of a healthy weight are less likely to experience anal gland problems, and even when they do, it's easier to treat them.
A prevalent theme for many medical conditions is that they are far more likely to occur in dogs holding onto a few extra pounds.
Making sure that your pet is at a healthy weight for their breed, age and height is one of those things that will prevent not only anal sac problems but many other health issues, too.
3. Exercise Your Dog More
In a similar vein, getting your dog to move around more through extra playtime, training, more vigorous exercise, or longer walks will keep them at a healthier weight.
More exercise will also open up the tubes that connect the dog anal glands to the outside world.
The best way to get to this point is through really strenuous exercise, which you will have to build up over time. Do not push your couch potato pet straight into heavy exercise but get to that point gradually.
Vigorous exercises like hiking or long-distance run were shown as an effective way to deal with anal sac problems.
4. Add Fiber Supplements
If your dog is not getting enough fiber in their regular meals, and you don’t want to switch them onto a different food altogether, a simple alternative is fiber supplements which you can add to your pet's food.
Fiber is the best solution to this issue when in its early stages.
The additional fiber in a dog's diet will help to firm up the stool and keep your pet going on a regular schedule.
As previously mentioned, a firm stool helps to express dog anal glands naturally.
However, be wary of drastically increasing your dog’s fiber intake if they suffer from pain when going to the bathroom, or worse, if there's any bleeding around the anus.
Psyllium is a type of soluble fiber that is of low fermentability. It has long been used to prevent or treat constipation in dogs, but it can also help treat and prevent anal gland problems.
Use an organic brand like Viva Naturals ($9.42) for your pet. Some other well-rated fiber supplements for anal glands in dogs:
|Glandex Anal Gland Soft Chew Treats with Pumpkin...||3,206 Reviews||Check Price|
|Diggin' Your Dog Firm Up Pumpkin Super Supplement...||1,304 Reviews||Check Price|
|NaturVet - No Scoot for Dogs - Plus Pumpkin -...||5,013 Reviews||Check Price|
5. Add Omega-3 Fatty Acids (Fish Oil)
Adding fish or vegan omega-3 fatty acid supplements to your dog’s food can help relieve itching and lessen inflammation in the anal sacs.
There are also far more benefits of fish oil for dogs than just fixing your dog's anal glands, many of which may subsequently help treat the condition and prevent further occurrence.
6. Use a Warm Compress
Holding a warm compress against your dog’s anal gland openings, either with only water or salted water, can really help open up the ducts and relieve impaction.
When dealing with this health problem, your pup is likely to have pain in that area, and a warm compress or heating pack like this one will be very comforting (which you can pair with pet diapers).
7. Check for Allergies
Food allergies are a common reason for inflamed obstructed anal glands in dogs.
By placing your pooch on an elimination diet and determining the allergen that your dog is reacting to, you can remove this from their diet and, in turn, remove the risk of future inflammation of the anal sacs.
The best approach is to use novel protein dog foods that contain ingredients that your pet is unlikely to have been exposed to before.
8. Use Stool Softeners
Depending on how bad your dog's anal gland problem is, sometimes it may cause ulceration or abrasions when the sacs are too big.
When this happens, defecating a dog will become very painful.
To reduce the strain and pain, you can use stool softeners for dogs, which are supplements that are either prescribed by your vet or bought over-the-counter, like NaturVet ($11.99) or Pfizer ($12.95).
9. Expressing the Anal Glands by Yourself
Some dogs have difficulty expressing their anal glands naturally and may require manual assistance to ensure that anal sac impaction or infection will not occur.
But, do not attempt to do this without your veterinarian's consent and instructions on how to do this at home if you're doing it for the first time.
Once you know the technique, expressing anal glands on a dog is actually easy and fairly safe.
Veterinary Treatments for Dog Anal Glands
1. Expressing the Anal Glands
Messing with your dog’s anal glands when not necessary can, in fact, do more harm than good. Not to mention, nobody wants to get involved if it’s not required.
But, if your veterinarian feels that manual expression is required, you have two options – do it yourself (with their instruction) or have them take care of it.
2. Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
After draining, your vet will likely prescribe anti-inflammatory drugs to relieve the cause of impaction in the first place, as well as fend off any additional swelling caused by expressing the sac.
If your dog is suffering from an infection or has a history of them, your vet may administer antibiotics after draining the dog's anal glands to prevent another infection from occurring.
Having said that, overuse of antibiotics can lead to other health issues or resistance.
4. Surgical Removal
In extreme cases of a dog suffering from repeat anal gland infections, removing these is a possibility. However, there are many risks and complication which can occur during.
After this procedure, therefore, it’s rarely advised except for in the cases where the risks are greater to the canine when left untreated.
Common Questions about Dog's Anal Glands
If you still have questions about your dog's anal glands or anal gland problems in canines, then the following information should help clear up your doubts.
How Do You Know If Your Dog Needs His Glands Squeezed?
There are some important signs that your dog needs his anal glands expressed. Be on the lookout for potential anal gland issues, such as your pup scooting on the carpet or excessive licking of his rear end. Another common indication that he needs his anal glands is to leak a very stinky substance or smell very strongly.
How Often Do Dogs Need Anal Glands Expressed?
How frequently your pup needs anal gland expression depends on your pup and his overall health. Some dogs will need anal gland expression one or two times every year. Other dogs might even need it done monthly. Yet others can go years without requiring anal gland expression.
Do All Dogs Need Anal Glands Expressed?
Anal gland expression is not necessary for all dogs. It is only necessary in the case of anal gland issues. Most of the time, the fluid in your pet's anal glands gets expressed naturally as part of bowel movements.
It is more likely for anal gland expression to be necessary for an anal gland issue, such as an anal gland infection, anal gland abscesses, or impacted anal glands.
What Happens When a Dog's Glands Are Full?
When a pet's anal glands are too full, this can lead to uncomfortable pressure in the area. That is when you will notice signs of your dog's anal gland issues, such as excessive licking or scooting across the floor.
What Causes Dog Glands to Fill?
Dog owners are most likely to notice an anal gland issue like the glands being full after several days of diarrhea.
This comes from the fact that soft stools do not provide enough pressure to empty the glands. When your dog poops, it should be at least somewhat solid, as this provides proper pressure.
If anal glands fill, this can lead to swollen, blocked, or impacted anal glands. These issues in the anal area require you to have the anal glands checked by a doctor of veterinary medicine.
Can You Express Your Dog's Glands at Home?
Yes, you can express your dog's anal glands at home to get the glands emptied. You will want to have disposable gloves, a lubricant like Vaseline, a soapy and warm washcloth, and paper towels.
Most pet owners find this task to be disagreeable with a foul smell, so it is normal to bring your dog to a board-certified veterinary surgeon to take care of it.
Keep in mind that you will have to put on gloves and lubricate if you want to express the glands yourself.
Then, you will place your index finger in the dog's anus keeping the rest of your hand outside. You will then use your thumb and index finger to find the anal glands and gently express them.
Be prepared for a foul smell and some discomfort from your dog. If you are going to have to do this regularly, consider asking your vet to show you the proper way to make the process go more smoothly.
What Happens If You Don't Express your Dog's Glands?
If you don't properly express your dog's glands when necessary, the issues can worsen. Your pup will likely be uncomfortable and maybe be in pain.
You will continue to notice that your dog scoots on the floor to relieve the pressure. If the glands require manual expression, but it doesn't happen, this can also lead to an infection that requires antibiotics.
It can even worsen to an abscess.
That being said, not all dogs need their anal glands expressed. Your vet can conduct a physical exam to check whether your pup needs this done.
If you do it despite the glands being healthy, you may cause anal gland inflammation or sacculitis.
Why Do Dogs Have Anal Sacs?
Dogs have anal glands because of the chemicals in the fluid they secrete. Those chemicals are territorial markings that canines use.
Those chemicals are part of why dogs sniff each others' rear ends. It is also why they sniff the dog poop of other dogs.
After all, some of the anal gland fluid gets squeezed out with healthy bowel movements. This adds the scent of the glands to your dog's feces.
How Do You Treat an Impacted Anal Gland?
The treatment for anal gland issues depends on the problem in question and its severity. It is common to express the glands. Some vets also try to eliminate soft stools by suggesting a high fiber diet.
This should make the dog's poop firmer, helping to clear the anal glands naturally with each bowel movement in the future.
In some cases, veterinary medical treatment may also include prescription medications, such as antibiotics.
Dog owners can usually give pups these medicines orally, but sometimes the vet needs to instill them directly into the sacs.
Prescription medications also typically involve pain relief medicine to minimize your dog's discomfort as he heals.
In severe cases, your vet may suggest an anal capsulectomy or removing the anal glands.
This procedure does not negatively affect domestic dogs, as it simply means they can't mark their territory. However, that surgery is delicate as well as specialized.
What Causes Anal Gland Issues in Dogs?
Having soft stools or loose stool is a common cause of issues with these glands. Other potential causes include allergies, infections, poor gastrointestinal health, and your pet's anatomy.
You can reduce some but not all of these contributing factors. Other risk factors include skin mite infestations, chronic skin infections, and issues with the anal gland ducts.
There are also other potential contributing factors. For example, smaller dogs typically require anal gland expression more frequently than larger dogs, and so do older dogs.
Certain breeds, including Cavalier King Charles Spaniels, Shih-Tzus, Bichon Frises, Cocker Spaniels, and Poodle and Cocker Spaniel mixes, tend to have a higher risk.